This spreadsheet shows the value of different resources by looking at how many jobs they need to be created. They are compared with energy credits to show the market value. (0.33 jobs is the equivalent of 1 energy, as it takes 0.33 technician jobs to produce 1 energy). The spreadsheet seperates the Job Value of Workers and Specialist as they have different upkeeps, (the spreadsheet uses decent living standards) and are later added to form the total job value. Total job value represents the amount of jobs that are necessary to produce a resource, it includes the jobs needed to sustain the producing pops. The Total Job Value determines the market value by comparing it to the Total Job Value of Energy Credits
https://drive.google.com/file/d/1V8lAQxd6g7B3WWGqVucvELgOXcfGb57Y/view?usp=sharing (This is the spreadsheet itself)
At the bottom row of the spreadsheet you can fill in modifiers which affect the efficiency of production, this creates the Personal Job Value. The Market Value and the Personal Market Value are divided by each other to create the Profit Margin of a resource. The Profit Margin represents how much better you are at the making the resource than the Market. With a Profit Margin of 0% all your Energy Credits go to "sustaining" the product cost (it is basically just replacing Technician Jobs with another form of producing Energy), but with a Margin of 20%, 20% of the Energy Credits you are actual more than a buffless Empire would get from Technician Jobs (Note if that your Profit Margin for a given resource exceeds that of your Profit Margin for Energy Credits, it is in fact more profitable to produce that resource and export it, than to actually produce Energy Credits)
The Market is however ridiculously under-priced, when 0 Alloys have been bought or sold yet, in the Internal Market, the Market's reward is 2.8 energy credits. Of course we have to to modify it by the Market Fee, which in the Internal Market is 36% as proven in this post: https://www.reddit.com/r/Stellaris/comments/a3d074/the_market_fee_of_the_internal_market_is_actually/
So we multiply 2.8 by 136% which gives us 3.8, but the Market Value which I have calculated is much higher, that means exporting is actually massively unprofitable, even without a Market Fee. At the start of the game, Alloys cost 5.2 Energy to purchase which is barely above the Market Value, meaning that you do not really need to produce Alloys, because you can buy them for the same price as it costs to make them. You will of course have to watch out for supply and demand making the price fluctuate, but at the start of the game you will consume such a negligible amount of Alloys that you can comfortably up till ~2230 have no real alloy production. Only when you have a significant Profit Margin is it better to produce rhather then to buy Alloys.
Consumer Goods are a bit more expensive than they should be at a starting Value of 1.9, which means you can export them well, but you really shouldn't import them. The raw resources are priced exactly as they should.
edit: I have added a link to the spreadsheet so you can use it
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