As the Lonesome Road DLC and many posts like this have highlighted the Legion is almost certain to fall after Caesar's death for various reasons ranging from lack of strong and good leadership to the absence of a proper governing system. But we also know that Sallow is a highly educated man. Unlike Lanius who is simply fallowing the example of a historic character, Caesar is actually capable of thinking for himself and does not limit himself to just doing what real life Caesar did. From various dialogue in the game we know that Sallow was a Follower Of The Apocalypse before becoming Caesar. As such he had a vast array of books available to him, not only teaching him Roman military tactics but also history in general.
In game He mentions the Hegelian Dialects, a philosophy based on opposites balancing each other out. He speaks about how his new empire will bring an end to the corruption and infighting of the NCR. So can we really expect a man like this to be just on a conquest spree, trying to create some new Rome? If he has the forsight to see the downfall of the NCR and understand Hegel's philosphy on history wouldn't he also foresee the so apparent destruction of the Legion as well? After all, Rome fell too. So, what is Caesar trying to achieve then?
I think the answer is a post Apocalypse middle age. Caesar isn't just a commander, as mentioned he is also a historian. He knows how Rome came to be, what it was and how it fell. If he wanted to create himself an empire he would have created public works, sustainable economic models and a proper society that is not based on only war, a Spartan model would have worked better for an empire of only war and slavery. But he instead picked very specific parts of the Roman empire to use: its conversion of barbarians to soldier, its use of slaves, its brutal efficiency. He made a pocket-Rome with which he could quickly topple the NCR with, then hopefully his empire would die, leaving semi-civilized savages in the East and weak but still formidable post-NCR nations in the west. Just like how Rome left Byzantium and Europe in its place.
Caesar's dislike of technology also ties into this as it caused the Great War. It would make sense for him to not like the destructive power of technology as a Follower. This also explains why Caesar never used technology even though it would greatly help him, real life Caesar always took any advantage he could when fighting his enemies. By not using modern technology Caesar shows that he has more in his mind than pure conqest.
TLDR: Because of these facts here is what i think Caesar's true intentions were:
-Unite the uncivilized tribes of the East
-Topple the NCR with it
-Die and leave his Empire crumbling
-Watch from hell as his brutal actions cause a new, better age to begin where people of the wasteland are freed from the tyranny of pre-war ideas like democracy, atomic technology and where people like House who are only trying to fallow systems which have proven to be wrong are no longer in place. A quick 1300 year setback on history so that humanity may recover and not destroy itself like before.
Sorry for any grammar mistakes, i am a non-native speaker, i had to delete my old post because it was bad.
And no, i am still on camp Mr. House even if my theory is true. The amount of pain Caesar caused does not justify his actions.
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